Enchiridion – The Enchiridion, or Handbook of Epictetus, often shortened to simply “The Handbook,” is a short manual of Stoic ethical advice compiled by Arrian. But these things should be done as subordinate things: and let all your care be directed to the mind. XXVIII. If any person was intending to put your body in the power of any man whom you fell in with on the way, you would be vexed: but that you put your understanding in the power of any man whom you meet, so that if he should revile you, it is disturbed and troubled, are you not ashamed at this? For by acting thus Diogenes and Heracleitus and those like them were deservedly divine, and were so called. Chapter 10 On the occasion of every accident (event) that befalls you, remember to turn to yourself and inquire what power you have for turning it to use. Is a man a father? 15, 36), and acting in a play (Ch. Chapter 2 Remember that desire contains in it the profession (hope) of obtaining that which you desire; and the profession (hope) in aversion (turning from a thing) is that you will not fall into that which you attempt to avoid: and he who fails in his desire is unfortunate; and he who falls into that which he would avoid, is unhappy. And whatever any man shall say about you, do not attend to it: for this is no affair of yours. The Enchiridion of Epictetus is a short manual of Stoic ethical advice compiled by Arrian, a 2nd-century disciple of the Greek philosopher Epictetus. Thedate at which he came to Rome is unknown, but it must have been eitherprior to 68, at which time Epaphroditus fled the capital, or after theaccession of Domitian in 81, under whom Epaphroditus was allowed toreturn and perhaps to resume his position. [5] Other parts are presumed to be derived from the lost Discourses. Remember that thou art an actor in a play of such a kind as the teacher (author) may choose; if short, of a short one; if long, of a long one: if he wishes you to act the part of a poor man, see that you act the part naturally; if the part of a lame man, of a magistrate, of a private person, (do the same). Do not detain it. But if you are old, do not even go far from the ship, lest when you are called you make default. Of things some are in our power, and others are not. For you should know that it is not easy both to keep your will in a condition conformable to nature and (to secure) external things: but if a man is careful about the one, it is an absolute necessity that he will neglect the other. Translated by Elizabeth Carter [43] Chapter after chapter of the Enchiridion is dissected, discussed, and its lessons drawn out with a certain laboriousness. . But destroy desire completely for the present. Let death and exile and every other thing which appears dreadful be daily before your eyes; but most of all death: and you will never think of anything mean nor will you desire anything extravagantly. Chapters 1–21. And if you have been thus formed to the (proper) habit, the appearances will not carry you along with them. If I can acquire money and also keep myself modest, and faithful and magnanimous, point out the way, and I will acquire it. Epictetus. Chapter 11 Never say about anything, I have lost it, but say I have restored it. [23] Thus the book is a manual on how to make progress towards what is necessary and sufficient for happiness. When at a small cost you are supplied with everything for the body, do not be proud of this; nor, if you drink water, say on every occasion, I drink water. Is it then your business to obtain the rank of magistrate, or to be received at a banquet? Said to have been compiled by Arrian in the early 2nd century from the Discourses of Epictetus. //-->, http://www.ptypes.com/Copyright © 1998-2010 Dave Kelly [39] At the end of the 18th-century the Enchiridion is attested in the personal libraries of Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Wish to be considered to know nothing: and if you shall seem to some to be a person of importance, distrust yourself. Description The Enchiridion or Manual of Epictetus is a short manual of Stoic ethical advice compiled by Arrian, a 2nd-century disciple of the Greek philosopher Epictetus. But if it seem to you seasonable to undertake (do) the thing, take care that the charm of it, and the pleasure, and the attraction of it shall not conquer you: but set on the other side the consideration how much better it is to be conscious that you have gained this victory. ii discourses, books iii and iv, the manual, and fragments. When you have decided that a thing ought to be done and are doing it, never avoid being seen doing it, though the many shall form an unfavorable opinion about it. google_ad_height = 60; Besides, which would you rather have, money or a faithful and modest friend? google_ad_type = "text_image"; If then a man gives up the obolus, and receives the lettuces, and if you do not give up the obolus and do not obtain the lettuces do not suppose that you receive less than he who has got the lettuces; for as he has the lettuces, so you have the obolus which you did not give. And so you will do in every act: for thus if any hindrance to bathing shall happen, let this thought be ready; it was not this only that I intended, but I intended also to maintain my will in a way conformable to nature; but I shall not maintain it so, if I am vexed at what happens. Although the content is mostly derived from the Discourses of Epictetus, it is not a summary of the Discourses but rather a compilation of practical precepts. If you have received the impression of any pleasure, guard yourself against being carried away by it; but let the thing wait for you, and allow yourself a certain delay on your own part. "[45], The Enchiridion was adapted three different times by Greek Christian writers. The word "encheiridion" (Ancient Greek: ἐγχειρίδιον) is an adjective meaning "in the hand" or "ready to hand". Elizabeth Carter, available from the MIT Internet Classics Archive [27] The edition published by Johann Schweighäuser in 1798 was the major edition for the next two-hundred years. XLIX. Therefore attend to the greater diviner, the Pythian God, who ejected from the temple him who did not assist his friend when he was being murdered. Is the oil spilled? You are no longer a youth, but already a full grown man. Therefore since they see that there is nothing else that they can obtain, but only the power of lying with men, they begin to decorate themselves, and to place all their hopes in this. A Translation from the Greek based on that of Elizabeth Carter, by Thomas Wentworth Higginson (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1865). But when I shall have found the interpreter, the thing that remains is to use the precepts (the lessons). Socrates in this way became perfect, on all things improving himself, attending to nothing except to reason. Is your wife dead? These reasons do not cohere: I am richer than you, therefore I am better than you; I am more eloquent than you, therefore I am better than you. For if it is not right to do it, avoid doing the thing; but if it is right, why are you afraid of those who shall find fault wrongly? In walking about as you take care not to step on a nail or to sprain your foot, so take care not to damage your own ruling faculty: and if we observe this rule in every act, we shall undertake the act with more security. And add this reflection on the occasion of everything that happens; for you will find it an impediment to something else, but not to yourself. Chapter 5 Men are disturbed not by the things which happen, but by the opinions about the things: for example, death is nothing terrible, for if it were, it would have seemed so to Socrates; for the opinion about death, that it is terrible, is the terrible thing. [19] Unlike the Discourses which seeks to encourage the student through argument and logic, the Enchiridion largely consists of a set of rules to follow. And the things in our power are by nature free, not subject to restraint nor hindrance: but the things not in our power are weak, slavish, subject to restraint, in the control of others. [13] Epictetus makes a sharp distinction between our own internal world of mental benefits and harms, and the external world beyond our control. The coupon code you entered is expired or invalid, but the course is still available! google_ad_height = 600; google_ad_channel = ""; [40][41], In the 19th-century, Walt Whitman discovered the Enchiridion when he was about the age of sixteen. Epictetus' Enchiridion - Ancient Philosophy & Peace of Mind a classic text of Stoic philosophy! The Enchiridion of Epictetus - Ebook written by Epictetus. [13], A constant vigilance is required, and one should never relax attention to one's reason, for it is judgements, not things, which disturb people. Is your child dead? The measure of possession (property) is to every man the body, as the foot is of the shoe. Chapter 4 When you are going to take in hand any act, remind yourself what kind of an act it is. But my country, you say, as far as it depends on me, will be without my help. Chapter 12 If you intend to improve, throw away such thoughts as these: if I neglect my affairs, I shall not have the means of living: unless I chastise my slave, he will be bad. And set against these things how you will rejoice if you have abstained from the pleasure, and how you will commend yourself. Chs 34–47. [47] A third manuscript, Vaticanus gr. . google_ad_type = "text_image"; What then is your own? 17, 37). But if you are ever very thirsty, take a draught of cold water, and spit it out, and tell no man. Does a man bathe quickly (early)? The Enchiridion of Epictetus. Take (apply) the things which relate to the body as far as the bare use, as food, drink, clothing, house, and slaves: but exclude everything which is for show or luxury. If a horse when he is elated should say, I am beautiful, one might endure it. 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