Infrared – description and applications
Scientifically, infrared radiation (IR) is called electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 780nm to 1mm.
There are three types of infrared:
- type A – infrared close to 0.8-2.5 μm
- type B – infrared medium is a range of 2.5-25 μm
- type C – far infrared is a range of 25-1000 μm
Each physical body emits infrared radiation.
Infrared is used in the scientific and medical industry. Used in night-vision and astronomical devices, it allows observation of objects obscured by interstellar dust.
Infrared is widely used in night vision, and there are two ways to use it: Passive – based on recording by the infrared radiation detector, which is sent by objects and if they are not illuminated by other infrared sources, then the radiation depends on the temperature of these objects. Thanks to this, we have the opportunity to build a thermal imager that allows you to see objects warmer than the surroundings in the dark. The pyrometer used for remote temperature measurement works on this principle. Active – its operation is based on infrared emission on its observed object and the object of observation of reflected radiation. The most popular infrared sources are hot bodies, LED diodes, and sometimes semiconductor infrared lasers.
distance measurement – infrared rangefinders in the range of 0.25-1.5 μm, laser scanners operating in the range up to 80 μm (delay measurement);
transmission of data in fiber optics; data transmission in the air – remote controls, communication in the IrDA standard, including file transfer in mobile phones;
infrared radiators used in some types of saunas or for heating interiors (eg heating umbrella);
in satellite photos, among others sea currents, cloud cover – high, cold clouds are bright, lower gray;
observations of the cosmos in infrared examination of the history of a painting image – in the infrared one can see previous layers of sketches and repainting.